In designing a warning system, we have to know what hazards a community faces. Here is a pretty comprehensive  list from FEMA US – it uses this at its training course on warning creation.

Interestingly heatwave doesnt appear on the list, although it might come under :”extreme heat.”

1. Seismic Hazards

a. Earthquakes

i. Soil Liquefaction

ii. Landslides, Rockslides, and Avalanches

iii. Tsunamis and Seiches

2. Volcanic Hazards

a. Volcanoes (pyroclastic flows, tephra (rock and ash), lava) i. Volcanic Gases (CO and CO2, H2, SO2, among others)

ii. Lahars (mudflows) and landslides

iii. Tsunamis

3. Mass Movement Hazards

a. Rockfalls (movement of debris through the air)

b. Landslides (movement of debris along slip surfaces)

c. Avalanches

d. Land Subsidence (cave-ins, sinkholes)

e. Expansive Soils

4. Atmospheric Hazards

a. Tropical Storms, Cyclones, and Hurricanes

b. Tornadoes

c. Hailstorms

d. Windstorms

e. Severe snowstorms and blizzards

f. Ice storms

g. Extreme heat or cold

h. Freeze/Frost (on highways, or affecting agriculture, for example)

i. Wildfire (Red Flag Warning conditions)

j. Thunderstorms and Lightning

k. Fog

5. Space Weather Hazards 

6. Hydrologic Hazards

a. Flooding; river and coastal (flooding is a common secondary hazard following other natural hazards such as extreme rainfall, snowmelt, ice jam, hurricane storm surge, landslides; or technological hazards such as dam failure or levee failure)

b. Coastal erosion

c. Soil erosion

d. Salination

e. Drought

i. Meteorological drought – a shortage of precipitation

ii. Hydrological drought – affecting water resources and urban water supplies

iii. Agricultural drought – water shortages affecting farm production

Technological Hazards. Technological hazards, or ‘man-made hazards’ as they are sometimes referred, are an inevitable product of technological innovation. These hazards, which can occur after the failure (accidental or intentional) of existing technology, tend to be much less understood than their natural counterparts and are increasing in number as the scope of and dependence on technology expands. The most common technological hazards arise from various components of transportation, infrastructure, industry, and buildings/structures. A partial list of such hazards is supplied below.

1. Transportation Hazards a. Bridge or tunnel collapse

b. Air, rail, road, or sea accident

c. Hazardous materials transportation accident

d. Closure of critical transportation routes

2. Infrastructure Hazards

a. Power failures / Accidents

b. Critical water / sewer line failures

c. Telecommunications failure

d. Gas line breaks

e. Dam failures

f. Computer system failure

g. Sabotage / intentional destruction

h. Human error / negligence

i. Economic failure

3. Industrial Hazards

a. Hazardous materials processing and storage accidents

b. Raw materials extraction accidents

c. Explosions / fires at industrial facilities

d. Sabotage / intentional destruction

e. Human error / negligence

f. Pollution (air, soil, water)

g. Stored chemical accidents

h. Nearby military installation accident

4. Structural failures/accidents

a. Building collapse

b. Structural fire Biological / Health-Related Hazards.

These hazards include the spread of disease, pests, or contaminants among all living things (humans, plants, and animals) within a community.

1. Human a. Human epidemics (natural or intentional)

b. Widespread poisoning (food)

2. Animal / Plant

a. Livestock disease epidemics

b. Plant / Agricultural disease epidemics

c. Aquatic disease epidemics

3. Infrastructure

a. Water contamination

b. Overloaded medical facilities

Civil / Political Hazards. Civil and political hazards result as an intentional or accidental byproduct of terrorism, sabotage, civil unrest, protest, strike, crime, or war.

1. Terrorism (nuclear, biological, chemical, radiological, conventional, hoaxes) / hostage situations

2. Civil unrest / protest / Riots

3. Strikes (public entity or private industry)

4. Sabotage

5. Crime (mass murder, arson, poisoning)

6. War